Who We Are
Autopercepciones de la población afroperuana: identidad y desarrollo (Self-perceptions of the Afro-Peruvian population: identity and development)
Authors: Karina Miranda Tovar, Javier Zorrilla Eguren, José Carlos Arellano. Assistants: Alejandro Pizarro, Nina Lacan. Prologue: Ivan Lanegra Quispe, Deputy Minister of Interculturality (Ministry of Culture) of the Republic of Peru.
Publication of the UNDP regional project “Afrodescendant Population of Latin America” (PAAL2). City of Knowledge, Panama. 2013.
Despite Peru’s undeniable economic growth in recent years, statistical data collected in the National Household Survey conducted by the National Institute of Statistics and Information of that country shows stagnation in the socioeconomic situation of Afro-Peruvians, which contrasts with the situation of other population groups.
The PAAL2 regional project commissioned Ipsos APOYO Opinión y Mercado to conduct this qualitative research exploring in depth the reality of afrodescendants in Peru, knowing the actions implemented by the State and civil society in defense of their rights and analyzing the perception of this population about the problems or barriers to social and economic development.
This paper begins with a section that provides information about Peru’s national context, based on demographic, economic and social indicators. It also includes the most relevant and recent findings on the geographical distribution of the Peruvian population by ethnicity. It then presents the methodology section, in which is detailed the information related to the fieldwork that allowed to meet the research objectives. This section includes information on the selected universes and geographic locations of study, the research techniques used and the participants’ characteristics. Next, the comprehensive analysis section examines in depth the information collected during fieldwork. Finally the conclusions of the study are summarized.
Universe, sample and segmentation
The studied universe consisted of Afro-Peruvian women and men living in urban and rural areas of the country. The sample was composed of women and men who identified themselves as Afro-Peruvians and black, over 18 years old and living in urban Lima, rural Lima (Cañete), urban La Libertad (Trujillo), rural Lambayeque (Capote), urban Ica (Chincha and Ica), urban Piura (Morropon) and urban Cajamarca (Jaen).
The segmentation of the sample by geographic region was based on the Afro-Peruvian population distribution by departments, being selected those places in the country with more population weight of Afro-Peruvians. Furthermore, the selection included focus groups in rural locations, as approximately 30% of Afro-Peruvians are living in rural areas.
Some conclusions of the research:
- The economic environment, more and more demanding in terms of degrees of professionalism, modern technology and business management, does not include or consider the poor Afro-Peruvian minority, which is affected by various forms of discrimination (racial, economic, social and cultural).
- Nowadays, being black and poor in Peru means to be in the last degree of social appraisal.
- Poor afrodescendant children and women of darker skin and traditional customs are the ones that suffer the most discrimination.
- The data obtained from the testimonies collected during the investigation allows to conclude that only a substantive transformation of the quality of education and health can make human development become an everyday experience and dissolve the structures of discrimination reported in their testimonies by the participants interviewed for this report.
- The Afro-Peruvian social movement organized around associations and NGOs is fragmented and is not yet strong enough to exert real pressure to force the State to implement a determined intercultural and non-discrimination policy.
- If the State does not express a clear and strong intercultural and non-discrimination policy, sanctioning acts of discrimination in its various forms and overcoming the barriers faced by Afro-Peruvians, it will not be possible to achieve the full development of this population.
Download PDF (only available in Spanish, 92 pages)
With the collaboration of the of the High Commissioner for Human Rights Regional Office for Central America (OHCHR) and within the framework of the project "Promotion and institutional strengthening of the rights of Afrodescendants populations in Central America", funded by the AECID, the Attorney’s Office for the Defense of Human Rights (PPDH, by its acronym in Spanish) of El Salvador and Nicaragua have edited the following publications:
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The report on Afro-Peruvian population was launched in Lima
Photo: Courtesy of UNDP Peru
The report “Autopercepciones de la población afroperuana: identidad y desarrollo” (Self-perceptions of the Afro-Peruvian population: identity and development), published by the UNDP regional project “Afrodescendant Population of Latin America” (PAAL2), was launched in Lima last Friday May 3, in a workshop held at the UNDP Javier Perez de Cuellar Complex which was attended by 55 participants and was broadcast live on the web.
The chairing panel of the meeting was composed by Rebeca Arias, Resident Coordinator of the UN System and UNDP Representative in Peru; Ivan Lanegra Quispe, Deputy Minister of Interculturality of Peru (author of the prologue to the report) and Silvia Garcia Savino, PAAL2 Coordinator.
Following the presentations of the opening panel members, two of the authors of the report explained to the participants the methodology, the results and findings of the investigation.
Photo: Courtesy of NGO Lundu.
The presentation of the report was widely covered in print media, radio and television. It also had an impact on social networks. The posts related to this report on the UNDP Peru Facebook page were seen by 3,500 people.
See the photo album of the meeting.
Dan Collyns, correspondent of CCTV America in Peru, produced an special report that was broadcasted on the American división of CCTV News, the English-language news channel run by Chinese estate broadcaster China Central Television. Watch the video on this link.
On Wednesday May 8 Salgalú TV online, the first internet tv channel in Peru, broadcasted an interview with the coordinator of PAAL2, conducted by the journalist Carlos Noriega (“Opinion”). Watch the video on this link.
Recommended articles (only available in Spanish)
“Instan a reforzar sensibilización en los colegios para contrarrestar discriminación racial”, Andina, Peru News Agency.
“Todos somos afros”, Newspaper La Pr1mera.
Blogs show the afrodescendants cultural and artistic production
We invite our readers to know three blogs of REDAFU (Red de Escritores y Creadores Afrodescendientes del Uruguay / Network of Afro Descent Writers and Creators of Uruguay). Click on the following links:
Red de escritores/as y creadores afrodescendientes; Escritoras y Creativas Afro. These publications present a variety of issues related to the cultural life and art expressions (literature, theater, music, dance, visual arts, and others) of the afrodescendant community in Uruguay.
Nzinga creaciones. Under the slogan "a trace of culture", this blog promotes the production of handicrafts that recreate ancient techniques employed by afrodescendant women.
First school for the training of Afrodescendant young leaders
Created by Ashanti Peru, Peruvian Network of Young Afrodescendant, the First School of Afrodescendant Young Leaders "Know and Participate for your Rights" has started its activities last mont in Lima, with the attendance of 30 young Afro-Peruvians.
The purpose of the School program is the strengthening of "the skills and abilities of Afro-Peruvian youth leadership, the fight against racism and racial discrimination, the knowledge about human rights, the generation of local development proposals, the gradual increase of citizen participation and the positioning in decision-making spaces at local, regional and national levels. "
Over a three months schedule, professional trainers and workshop instructors will develop a program consisting of 11 modules of 3 and a half hours duration, which take place on Saturday afternoon at the Peruvian University of Science and Informatics (UPCI by its acronym in Spanish) (Jr. Talara 748-752 , Jesus Maria, Lima. Graduates will receive a certificate endorsed by the Ministry of Education –among others- and will participate in the National Meeting of Young Afrodescendant Leaders, to be held in August 2013.
See the list of participants and more information about the school.
¿What is Ashanti Peru?
Ashanti Peru was born in 2005 on the initiative of ASONEDH (Black Association for the Defense and Promotion of Human Rights). Ashanti brings together young leaders from Afro-Peruvian communities, with representatives in the departments of Tumbes, Piura, Lambayeque, Arequipa, Lima - Callao, Ica and Tacna. Its main purpose is to combat racism, discrimination and poverty through the active and effective participation of the Afrodescendant in the full exercise of citizenship and human rights.
Photo: courtesy of Ashanti Peru.
PAAL2's new book, workshops and international forum
During 2013, the regional project “Afrodescendant population of Latin America” (PAAL2 by its acronym in Spanish) will publish new books on the afrodescendant population of Costa Rica, Panama, Peru and Uruguay. The publications will be launched in a series of workshops to be held in those countries. We are also organizing the Forum for strategic thinking "Afrodescendant women and political action in Latin America: Towards the collective construction of a common agenda", that will take place in Panama City with the participation of representatives from 17 countries.
Between March and November 2013 will be released the books containing the reports of the following consultancies commissioned by the PAAL2:
- "Self-perceptions of the Afro-Peruvian population: identity and development."
- "Socio-economic situation of the Afro-Costa Rican population according to data from the 2011 X National Population Census of and VI Housing Census".
- "Qualitative analysis: perceptions and self-perceptions of the Afro-Panamanian population."
- "Political Map and leadership of the Afro-Uruguayan population."
- "Analysis of the socioeconomic situation of the Afrodescendant population in Uruguay".
The workshops to introduce the books to the respective governments, civil society, academia and the media in each country will be held in Lima, San Jose, Costa Rica, Panama City and Montevideo (dates still pending).
These four new books (the two reports about the Afro-Uruguayan population will be contained in a single volume) will add to the books already published by PAAL1 and PAAL2 projects. Click here to see the complete list of books and their reviews under "Our Publications" section of this website.
The regional Forum for strategic thinking "Afrodescendant women and political action in Latin America: Towards the collective construction of a common agenda" is scheduled to take place next July in Panama City. The overall objective of the meeting is to contribute to define effective strategies and practices that facilitate greater political impact of Latin American women. The meeting will count with the presence of 34 Afrodescendant political women from 17 countries, especially invited by PAAL2. A video and a memory of the Forum will also be produced. Soon we will offer more information and the concept note that will be the basis of the Forum.